Monumental Brass Society

Paul and Margaret Dayrell

Date of Brass:
Lillingstone Dayrell
London F


August 2023


Eleanora Dayrell wrote in The History of the Dayrells of Lillingstone Dayrell, published in 1885, that William the Conqueror was accompanied by a member of the family when he landed in 1066. and that the manor at what became Lillingstone Dayrell in Buckinghamshire was assigned by William to him. She noted that the name was originally d’Ayrell as in the castle north of St Lô in Normandy. Apart from a period of ten years immediately after 1300, the manor continued in the family, Eleanora’s husband, Captain E Marmaduke Dayrell was the 35th Lord of the Manor. He, however, sold the manor around 1887.

In the church of St Nicholas, the monuments of the Dayrell family are very much in evidence, that of Paul Dayrell, who died in 1571, occupying the centre of the chancel. The memorial of an earlier Paul Dayrell is a tomb chest. He died in 1491 and the effigies of brass on the top of the chest commemorate him and his wife Margaret. The brasses belong to the London F style, as identified and listed by Dr J P C Kent in his 1949 article ‘Monumental Brasses - A new classification of military effigies’. While Kent’s article terminated at 1485, the Paul Dayrell’s brass was included in his list. It differs little from the other examples in Kent’s sub-group 3 except in being more detailed: he has a lance rest on the upper part of his two part breast plate and his gauntlets are hanging behind his sword grip. Despite these additional features, his effigy is smaller than some of the others in the sub-group. Robin Emmerson drew attention to the seeming discrepancy between Dayrell’s date of death and the style of the brass, which he dated as c.1483 in his expansion of Kent’s work to non-miltary effigies in ‘Monumental Brasses: London design c.1420-85’ published in 1978. However, Dayrell’s elbow defences are less prominent than those appear on the other brasses in the same sub-group. Elbow defences (couteurs) on armour began to grow much larger in the mid-fifteenth century and shrank again as the century went on. The reduced size of Dayrell’s may indicate that his brass is indeed a little later than 1483 but some obviously later brasses have larger couteurs than his. Emmerson spotted that the engraving of the date of death on the brass slopes slightly compared to the rest of the inscription, indicating that it was added after Dayrell’s death. The effigy of William Burgh, died 1492, at Catterick, Yorkshire, is definitely later than Dayrell’s as it adopts the new round-toed style of sabbaton associated with the Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian in contrast to Dayrell’s more pointed ones. Burgh’s knee defences are also later and later brasses at Hutton, Somerset and Nether Heyford, Northamptonshire chnge the style somewhat.

Margaret Dayrell wears a large butterfly headdress very similar to those worn by other wives in the sub-group but her figure, like that of her husband, has features that differ from the rest. While the other wives in the sub-group have dresses that fall straight from the waist to the floor all round, her hem is raised at the front with the folded material tucked under her arm close to the wrist. This is something that appears on a number of contemporary brasses from the first Coventry workshop but is very rarely seen on those engraved in London at this period.

The conclusion is surely that Paul Dayrell ordered the brass in his lifetime, perhaps in 1485 or thereabouts, and that someone paid for the date to be added after his death. The order included the tomb chest as well as the brass, making it more expensive than a floor brass and the added expense extended to additional engraving compared with otherwise similar brasses.


Copyrights: Jon Bayliss, photo and text

William Lack, Martin Stuchfield and Philip Whittemore, rubbing (The Monumental Brasses of Buckinghamshire)

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